The tabs at the top of the screen allow you to access the Introduction, Notebook, Assignments, Genetic Code, and Help. There is also a tab that allows you to Quit the applet. These tabs will lead you to information and tools that are outside the applet itself.



Case Selection Popup Menu: The Case Selection Popup Menu offers a list of patients to study. There is a blood sample from each patient, which you can examine in various ways.

To select a new case, hold the mouse button down over the case listed. You should see a list of possible cases. Move the mouse to the one you want and let go.

Although you may choose to select one case and analyze it thoroughly, you may compare cases at any time by switching between the cases via the "Select Case" choice button. You may do this from any screen, but only the screens that allow you to examine the blood sample will change visibly (those screens include Blood Samples, Microscope, and Gel Electrophoresis).

Navigation Buttons: These buttons allow you to move through the applet. The first four buttons, under the heading "Examine," allow you to examine the patient's blood sample in various ways (see below). The Edit DNA Sequence and Laboratory buttons take you to the DNA Editor and to the Laboratory, respectively. You may progress through these screens in any order, and you may return to a previously visited screen at any time.

Using the DNA editor you can modify a strand of normal DNA, translate it, and compare the resulting peptide sequence with that of the normal hemoglobin and of the patient's hemoglobin.


The Ledger displays information about each patient. It is only visible on certain screens (Blood Samples, Microscope, and Gel Electrophoresis). It shows the patient's name, age, and a short case history that includes symptoms, past illness and/or treatments, and sometimes information about the patient's relatives. It is provided to give you more information about the physical results of each type of mutation.

As you run experiments, form hypothoses, and test them, you should keep notes on your theories and findings in the HemoglobinLab notebook. You may access the notebook at any time from the Infobar. The notebook will open up in a separate window.